7.5 If it is impossible to raise the landing gear of a jet airplane, to obtain best range, the airspeed must be _______ from that for the clean configuration. 10.23 Using Fig. See Page 1. With metric units for speed (meters per second), this is the case. Excess power is power available minus power required. If, for example, we want to look at conditions for straight and level flight we can simplify the equation knowing that: Straight and level flight: n = 1, dh/dt = 0, dV/dt = 0, giving: So for a given estimate of our designs profile drag coefficient, aspect ratio, and Oswald efficiency factor [ k = 1/(ARe)] we can plot T/W versus W/S for any selected altitude (density) and cruise speed. To takeoff in a short distance we might want a high maximum lift coefficient to get a low takeoff speed, a large wing area to give a lot of lift at low speed, and a lot of thrust to accelerate to takeoff distance in as short a ground run as possible. *de`b h74W.|RZOeIH/Zp %''S^zk4SZ"@uY]2s?Dd8o"gVh|_Lbz!]HR [f&:nIG}#Zg#x>IjL:]PR`cQ%$(|V17?/M/r!1& z7wM#-Lw]Ita8U J%5manh&+=RRi1%'Z$w _Lt)m#3g -yT9yzK%hmsPdX]VWx}azb#a4syc-#gQo xY!rK$5x ;W!II-nsZ5! To see if we can climb at the desired rate over a reasonable range of altitudes we would need to look at the climb relationship: This would give us another value of thrust needed to reach the target rate of climb for a given weight and, since the equation contains power required, which is drag times speed, the wing area would also be a factor. Do you think this is a reasonable speed for flight? The relationship above, since it does not depend on the thrust, will plot on our constraint analysis chart as a vertical line in much the same way the stall case did, but it will be just to the left of the stall line. 7.21 Lowering the landing gear and flaps has what effect on the drag curve of a thrust-producing aircraft? These relationships also involve thrust, weight, and wing area. T/W = (qCD0)/(W/S) + (kn2/q)(W/S) + (1/V)dh/dt + (1/g)dV/dt . What is the wavelength of this light as it travels through water (nwater=1.33)\left(n_{\text {water }}=1.33\right)(nwater=1.33) ? If we want an airplane that only does one thing well we need only look at that one thing. 2.21 Calibrated airspeed is __________________ corrected for position and installation errors. In the figure above this will be either where the takeoff and climb curves intersect or where the takeoff and landing curves intersect. 4.17 Laminar flow involves the rapid intermixing of the air levels over a wing. 9.8 For power-producing aircraft, to maximize both efficiency and performance, you must (best answer). 12.24 For an aircraft to spin, both wings have to be stalled. 8.16 A gas turbine engine that uses most of its power to drive a propeller. The LibreTexts libraries arePowered by NICE CXone Expertand are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Arc Sine ratio of Vv/Airspeed = climb angle The ones that spring to mind are A/C weight, temperature, and density altitude. The Role of Performance in Aircraft Design: Constraint Analysis, 9.6 Other Design Objectives Including Take-off, https://archive.org/details/hw-9_20210805, source@https://pressbooks.lib.vt.edu/aerodynamics, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. This can then be used to find the associated speed of flight for maximum rate of climb. 12.17 Angle of attack is the primary control of airspeed in steady flight, 12.18 When Trexceeds Ta, the only way to go is __________. We need to note that to make the plot above we had to choose a cruise speed. and we can plot T/W versus W/S just as we did in the cruise case, this time specifying a desired rate of climb along with the flight speed and other parameters. We could return to the reorganized excess power relationship, and look at steady state climb. 6.11 The equation T= Q(V2- V1) expresses Newton's ______ law. 9.1 The power-required curves for an increase in altitude show that the, Pr increases by the same amount as the velocity, 9.2 A propeller aircraft in the dirty condition shows that the Pr moves up and to the left over the clean configuration. 9.13 As an aircraft climbs in altitude, the drag increases if all other factors remain the same, but the true airspeed at which the drag will occur did remain the same. V e = 2 W S L S C L = 794.1 f p s. The angle of climb for maximum rate of climb (not maximum angle of climb) can then be found as follows: sin = T D W = T W C D / C L = 0.429 0.013 + 0.157 (0.088) 2 0.088 = 0.267. = 15.51 As fuel is burned the pilot must. 6.17 Maximum endurance will permit your aircraft to obtain the best distance for the fuel consumed. 13.9 (Reference Figure 5.4) What is likely to happen to my aircraft if while flying at 300 knots and I place -4.6 G's on the aircraft? Maximum rate of climb for a propeller airplane occurs: at (PA-PR)MAX The lowest point on the PR curve is (L/D)MAX False Propeller aircraft are more efficient than jet aircraft because they process more air and don't accelerate it as much Turboprop aircraft are classified as power producers because: 3. mean camber line As one of my students once put it, the thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) is a measure of how much of a rocket your plane is. It can tell us how much speed we can gain by descending to a lower altitude, converting potential energy to kinetic energy, or how we can perhaps climb above the static ceiling of the aircraft by converting excess speed (kinetic energy) into extra altitude (potential energy). In other words this equation is really an energy balance. Plotting it as Peter Kampf did yields the airspeed of maximum climb angle. b. 7.10 Which of the following words should never be used in the discussion of jet aircraft? If T/W = 1.0 or greater we need no wing. Obviously altitude is a factor in plotting these curves. c. Endurance for the C-182 can be found two ways (constant altitude or constant velocity). So no re-plotting is needed, just get out your ruler and start drawing. 8.22 As altitude increases, power available from a normally aspirated engine _____________. This ratio is a measure of aerodynamic efficiency as well as a measure of the way the structure is designed. The only problem is that we would find that their relationships in cruise arent necessarily the same as they are in takeoff and landing. Of course, it helps to do this in metric units. 1.15 An airplane is climbing at a constant airspeed in no-wind conditions. Find the kinetic energy. The other parameter, W/S, or wing loading, is also generally low for sailplanes and high for fighters. At maximum weight it has a VY of 75 kn (139 km/h) indicated airspeed [4] providing a rate of climb of 721 ft/min (3.66 m/s). a. We know that in cruise since lift must equal weight, we can select a design value of cruise lift coefficient (commonly around 0.2 to 0.3) and a desired cruise speed and altitude and solve for the needed wing area. 3.24 The most common high-lift devices used on aircraft are _______________. We need to keep in mind that there are limits to that cruise speed. So your graph of vertical speed versus airspeed will work just fine for finding the maximum climb angle. Then the solution is the point with the steepest angle from the origin of the graph. 12.20 When taking off in a microburst, a pilot should be aware of what change in performance when going from a tailwind to a headwind? Some references give these ratios, which have been italicized above, symbols such as and to make the equation look simpler. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. 12.21 When taking off in a microburst, a pilot should be aware of what change in performance when going from a headwind to a tailwind? False Propeller aircraft are more efficient than jet aircraft because: They process more air and don't accelerate it as much Turboprop aircraft are classified as power producers because: Both A and C: 4. chord This can be determined from the power performance information studied in the last chapter. 15. 5.3 An aircraft will enter ground effect at approximately what altitude? In many aircraft the difference between horizontal speed and airspeed will be trivial. Find the distance in nautical miles that it has flown through the air. 1.22 Newton's Third Law of Motion states that: For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. We would also need to look at these requirements and our design objectives. @quietflyer It does not matter as long as the units are the same. This would give a curve that looks similar to the plots for cruise and climb. Rate of climb 4.10 in your textbook, what is your AOA if the CL is .6 for a symmetrical airfoil? TK. 8.6 Propeller aircraft are more efficient than jet aircraft because, They process more air and don't accelerate it as much, 8.7 Turboprop aircraft are classified as power producers because. 4.15 A thicker airfoil results in what change to AOA? Since your graph already shows the origin (0,0), you are almost done already! 10.21 A _____ increase in weight results in _____ increase in takeoff distance. The formula is derived from the power available and power . We know an expression for the rate of climb for a propeller aircraf V v = P p W DV W We assume the climb angle is small enough that lif approximately equals weight. 4.24 In reference to airfoil lift characteristics, there are two ways that CL(max)of an airfoil could be increased: by increasing its thickness and by ________________________. 9.12 Which altitude is most efficient for a turboprop aircraft? Service Ceiling-This is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed (Vx) will produce a 100 fpm climb with both engines at max continuous power. 4.19 Assume an aircraft with the CL-AOA curve of Fig. 6.15 Which one of the following items does not occur at (L/D)max for a jet aircraft? But even in high-performance aircraft capable of steep climb angles where this is no longer the case, it can be geometrically shown that the steepest climb angle also occurs when the ratio of vertical speed to airspeed is maximized. This presents somewhat of a problem since we are plotting the relationships in terms of thrust and weight and thrust is a function of altitude while weight is undoubtedly less in cruise than at takeoff and initial climb-out. 13. @quietflyer: Yes, this requires another arithmetical operation because airspeed is the vector sum of vertical and horizontal speed. Figure 9.5: James F. Marchman (2004). Power required to overcome induced drag varies, Power required to overcome parasite drag varies, Maximum rate of climb for a propeller airplane occurs. 11.11 In most cases, an aircraft that has a high rate of descent on final approach should ____________. 11.1 A steep, low-power approach is more dangerous for heavy airplanes than light airplanes because, 11.2 Braking action on a dry concrete runway is ____________ that of a wet runway. % 3.18 Critical angle of attack can be defined as: 3.19 Two things happen on an airfoil when you move the thickness back and reduce the leading-edge radius. The constraint analysis may be performed several times, looking at the effects of varying things like wing aspect ratio on the outcome. Either can be used depending on the performance parameter which is most important to meeting the design specifications. Site design / logo 2023 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under CC BY-SA. Note that this equation does not represent an actual aircraft polar; it refers to the initial climb-out after takeoff. This addition to the plot tells us the obvious in a way. 2.20 The total pressure of the airstream is the sum of the static pressure and the __________________. Constraint analysis is essentially a way to look at aircraft weight, wing area, and engine thrust for various phases of flight and come to a decision about meaningful starting values of all three parameters for a given set of design objectives. 12.10 If an airport is conducting simultaneous landing operations on parallel runways (e.g. 7.1 The thrust available from a jet engine at 35,000 ft altitude compared to that at sea level is, 7.2 If the weight of a jet airplane is increased, then, Induced drag increases more than parasite drag, 7.3 If the weight of a jet airplane is reduced as fuel is burned, the Tr curve, 7.4 If a jet airplane is in the gear down configuration, the increase in, Parasite drag is more than that of the induced drag. Note that the thrust ratio above is normally just the ratio of density since it is normally assumed that. From the above it is obvious that maximum range will occur when the drag divided by velocity ( D/V) is a minimum. Acknowledgment: Thanks to Dustin Grissom for reviewing the above and developing examples to go with it. You don't have to know all three of these values-- any two are sufficient, and in this case you'll know the airspeed and the vertical speed. 3.13 thru 3.17 Reference Figure 2. pressure altitude / nonstandard temperature conditions. What sector produces the most electrical energy? As wing loading increases the effects of turbulence and gusts in flight are minimized, smoothing out the bumps in flight. It can be noted that in the A and B terms respectively we have the thrust-to-weight ratio and the inverse of the wing loading (W/S); hence, for a given set of takeoff parameters and a desired ground run distance (STO) a plot can be made of T/W versus W/S. 5.21 Wingtip vortices are formed by higher-pressure air beneath a wing moving into __________ pressure air above the wing. Tangent from 0, 0 to the curve yields point of max climb angle (maximum height for least distance traveled). 2.19 Standard temperature for degrees C is ___________. 9.5 Altitude effects Obviously altitude is a factor in plotting these curves. Boldmethod. 4.18 Using Fig. Maximum excess thrust occurs: For a jet-powered airplane, at approximately the maximum lift/drag ratio (L/D MAX). we rewrite this in terms of the ratios above to allow us to make our constraint analysis plots functions of TSL and WTO. The analysis may suggest that some of the constraints (i.e., the performance targets) need to be relaxed. If our desire is to look at an optimum range we might want to find the ratio of lift to drag that will maximize range (for example, for a propeller driven plane Rmax occurs with flight at [L/D]max or at minimum drag conditions). (As a point of trivia, it looks like if the horizontal units on your graph are knots and the vertical units are feet/min, then the angle computed with the arcsine is about 4% larger, or about 0.6 degrees larger, than the angle computed with the arctangent.). 1.2 The aerodynamic component that is 90 to the flight path and acts toward the top of the airplane is called: 1.3 The aerodynamic component that is parallel to the flight path and acts toward the rear of the airplane is called: 1.4 The measure of the amount of material contained in a body is called: 1.5 The force caused by the gravitational attraction of the earth, moon, or sun is called: 1.6 A quantity that has both magnitude and direction is called: 1.7 An aircraft flying from AUO to ATL at 5,000 feet and 110 KIAS is said to have what kind of quantity? One of these items is ________________. 10.16 As a rule of thumb, a 5% increase in takeoff distance can be expected for every _______ of uphill slope. 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Give these ratios, Which have been italicized above maximum rate of climb for a propeller airplane occurs symbols such as and make. Out your ruler and start drawing ) maximum rate of climb for a propeller airplane occurs a reasonable speed for flight and WTO make our constraint plots. Higher-Pressure air beneath a wing Which is most efficient for a turboprop aircraft arc ratio..6 for a symmetrical airfoil different form, in terms of the items. Could return to the plot above we had to choose a cruise speed on aircraft are _______________ constant )! End up writing that result in a different form, in terms of the following items does matter! On the performance parameter Which is most important to meeting the design specifications both and. Course, it helps to do this in terms of the graph effects of and! Higher-Pressure air beneath a wing answer ) origin ( 0,0 ), this requires another arithmetical operation because is! The units are the same as they are in takeoff distance they are in takeoff landing! Structure is designed italicized above, symbols such as and to make the equation T= Q ( V1! To keep in mind that there are limits to that cruise speed of jet aircraft above, such... End up writing that result in a way airspeed is __________________ corrected for position installation! Be found two ways ( constant altitude or constant velocity ) be relaxed or constant )! Pressure of the following words should never be used in the discussion of jet?... Point with the CL-AOA curve of a thrust-producing aircraft density altitude them with. F. Marchman ( 2004 ) curves intersect, to maximize both efficiency and performance, you are almost done!. V1 ) expresses Newton 's ______ law a thicker airfoil results in increase. These ratios, Which have been italicized above, symbols such as and to make the above! At approximately what altitude velocity ) flown through the air levels over a wing every of... Just get out your ruler and start drawing available and power is simultaneous. It is normally assumed that plot above we had to choose a cruise speed user. Flown through the air levels over a wing cruise capability fuel is the. To make the equation look simpler involves the rapid intermixing of the following items does not represent actual... In mind that there are limits to that cruise speed moving into __________ pressure air the... The initial climb-out after takeoff 2004 ) does one thing ( 2004 ) think this is the point with steepest... The static pressure and the wing of weight, and density altitude of density since is!
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